Relations between the Netherlands and Japan in the early modern period were founded on trade. The Dutch United East India Company operated in Japan for over 100 years, from 1609 to the early eighteenth century. The Dutch–Japanese relationship, built sometimes on understanding, and at other times resentment, is recorded in great detail in the trade-related archives of the period. This book closely examines these documents to reveal the changing market conditions of the main commodities exported by the Dutch from Japan at the time: silver, koban gold , copper and camphor. This analysis of both Dutch and Japanese perspectives on the market forms an intricate picture of the cultural, political and economic context of trade between the Netherlands and Japan in the early modern period.