Diversity is a crucial concept describing the recent shift in minority studies from its focus on social stratification and inequality. In recent times, new theories and concepts that suggest epositivef meanings are emerging. The focus is on empirically analyzing the mechanisms that produce alienation and discrimination as well as normatively exploring the social conditions that connect minority groups and social diversity to creativity and dynamism. Chapters in this volume delve into the status of women in Japan in relation to marriage and single motherhood, gendered roles and norms in the early modern period, the Japanese American reparation movement, Korean and Muslim ethnic minorities in Japan and the United Kingdom, mutual aid in Okinawa, and the role of NGOs and NPOs in fostering social diversity. This insightful work suggests that in order to broaden our understanding of minorities we should examine the ways in which these groups promote the enrichment of society.